One of the most famous and most used chilies in the Western world. The jalapeno chili is smooth skinned and the unripe fruit varies in colour between bright green to a dark, almost black-green. The jalapeno is normally around 50 - 75 mm long and 20 mm wide. The jalapeno is prized for the warm, burning sensation when eaten. It has a very distinctive flavour and is often used in salsas (both cooked and raw) and is prevalent in many different Mexican dishes. The jalapeno can be frozen if first blanched for 5 minutes in boiling water and drained. In Mexico, it is best known as "en escabeche" and as a pickled chili.

It is a cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum. It is named after the town of Xalapa, Veracruz, where it was traditionally produced. 160 square kilometres are dedicated for the cultivation of jalapeno in Mexico alone; primarily in the Papaloapan river basin in the north of the state of Veracruz and in the Delicias, Chihuahua area. Jalapeno is also cultivated in smaller scale in Jalisco, Nayarit, Sonora, Sinaloa and Chiapas. The jalapeno is known by different names throughout Mexico such as cuaresmeņos, huachinangos and chiles gordos.

The growing period for a jalapeno plant is 70–80 days and when mature, the plant stands 750 to 1,000 mm tall. Typically, a single plant will produce twenty five to thirty five pods. As the growing season comes to an end, the jalapenos start to turn red which are considered inferior. Growers often either discard the red jalapenos into the ground or use them for the production of chipotles.

The jalapeņo rates between 2,500 and 5,000 Shu's on the Scoville scale

Scientific classification 
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Capsicum
Species: C. annuum
Binomial name
Capsicum annuum

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